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Title :The Roles of Coinhibitory Receptors in Pathogenesis of Human Retroviral Infections
Authors :Matsuoka, Masao
Yasuma-Mitobe, Keiko
Issue Date :27-Nov-2018
Citation jtitle :Frontiers in Immunology
vol. :9
no. :2755
start page :1
end page :8
Abstract :Costimulatory and coinhibitory receptors play a key role in regulating immune responses to infection and cancer. Coinhibitory receptors include programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), and T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT), which suppress immune responses. Coinhibitory receptors are highly expressed on exhausted virus-specific T cells, indicating that viruses evade host immune responses through enhanced expression of these molecules. Human retroviruses, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), infect T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. Therefore, one needs to consider the effects of coinhibitory receptors on both uninfected effector T cells and infected target cells. Coinhibitory receptors are implicated not only in the suppression of immune responses to viruses by inhibition of effector T cells, but also in the persistence of infected cells in vivo. Here we review recent studies on coinhibitory receptors and their roles in retroviral infections such as HIV and HTLV-1.
URL :https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02755/full
Type Local :雑誌掲載論文
ISSN :16643224
Publisher :Frontiers Media
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/2298/41363
Appears in Collections:Journal Article (Medicine)
Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2298/41363